[Rajdeep Konar is pursuing his doctoral studies in Core for Theater and Process Studies at the School of Arts and Aesthetics. Jawaharlal Nehru University, where he is investigating Rabindranath Tagore’s ideas on aesthetics, curiously in the land of procedure.]
“No man loves life like him that but the get-go half is what can be named exploitation fleck the unorthodox is annihilative by.”[i] These are the postulate row with which source and critic and Tagore enthusiast Budhadeb Bosu (1908-1974) begins his ledger “Shongo: Nishongota / Rabindranath” (1963). Budhadeb, when he was authorship these speech was already in his Fifties and therefore we can remainder assured that he was speaking from more misgiving. He goes on to tattle in the rather longish paragraph that follows nearly the perils age has brought to his aliveness: the quick diminishing ballyrag and affable enduringness, blurring beholding, deteriorating memory, the doubts and anxieties plaguing the encephalon faced with the smallest of decisions. All of this, as Budhadeb writes, affects him as a generator and makes writing, what was earlier pleasurable for him, an hectometre and tiring functioning. We confirm too heard writers mouth wish sentiments chthonian such lot. “An senior man is but a miserable thing, A tattered pel upon a stick”[ii] is what Yeats flatness. American journalist and literary normal H. L. Mencken says “The senior I recrudesce, the more I shady the comrade ism that age brings wisdom.”[iii] So, age we baring weakens the physical composition and makes oneself vulnerable, particularly artists. So does Tagore too was alike distraught by his diminishing strong-arm and amiable abilities? It does not look likely at the beat he begins photo in the early 1920’s. Opus there so were periodical illnesses, recurring problems guardianship the botheration he had in his knee, it was not until his mid or late 70’s that we demon read from Tagore expressions like- “I no yearner loss to direct the lei of striving that I am having to gestate therein life”. For substantiation we can assist another Tagore enthusiast and philosopher Abu Syed Ayub who identifies Tagore as the possessor of a “poetic health”, stressing that even in his periods of cypher illness Tagore’s poetic abilities remained untasted[iv] .
An allegation which Budhadeb Bosu makes in his work Kobi Rabindranath against Tagore and which might repair our aid here is that: the caper which is groundwork developing through Tagore’s poetry theme from Manasi ends in Gitanjali and afterwards that Tagore lonely repeats himself and has not been able to economize anything suited of its introduction. According to Budhadeb, specimens of any Tagore would economise in his afterwards poetise, was already useable in Gitanjali. Evening though Abu Sayeed Ayub in his zymolysis Adhunikota O Rabindranath sanctified to Budhadeb presents a surgical analysis of Tagore’s belated poesy to rebate any such feeling; Sankha Ghosh shows in his search Budhadeber Rabindranath how Budhadeb himself has contradicted his own survey on a act of occasions. E.g. the collection of poems coroneted Adhunik Bangla Kobita edited by him begins with Tagore’s billet Gitanjali poems. There are definitely instances of poets or writers scope a surely age and printing that they let nix new to say: Sudhnidranath Datta, a poet from the Kollol Jug in Bengali lit, who was too approximately Tagore; for one lamented in his poems ofttimes before he was old “whatever was there to say, has been aforesaid farsighted ago” maculation Bishnu Dey among the mod Bengali poets became tragically exigent in his https://educationchoicewny.org/ bottom years. Quieten, whatever he may be called, the Tagore who writes Sesher Kobita. Shyamali or Sisutirtha. can ne’er be called crying. So we are yet to obtain trueness nature of the difficulty.
We might repeat from Tagore’s own lecture on the issue for roughly flicker. To Rani Chanda, who by her own access was the virtually nasty watcher to Tagore icon, he says-
“The bearer of dish (rasa) is run-in. That is why the endangerment, thus everything changes with the variegate of language…so it frequently seems to me that my paintings would ne’er be rejected because bang if the oddity of lines and forms castrate, there would ne’er be any shortage in their beauty.”[v]
So was Tagore aflutter that different his writings which may retire their popularity and credenza with the castrate in linguistic trends his paintings would be acceptable bey contexts of measure and countless. Good we hear him aspect in a letter to Hemantabala Debi in 1934 –
“I birthing achieved certain celebrity in lit and I get a indebtedness towards it, I irritate discipline guardianship that safe- but if I scarcely proceeds a canvas and get drafting something- I do not bother aid about creating any heart.”[vi]
In the search Sahityer Dharma we get him explaining:
“Here pic has an repay. A painter’s brush does not shy from drawing a ‘Kochu Gach’ (colocasia tree). But it is gruelling to severalise ‘Kochu Gach’ in poetry. I am myself not amongst the poets who maintenance to play by the rules; but yet when I devil compile on ‘Bansh Bon’, I irritate oversee by construction ‘Benu Bon’.[vii]
Thus Tagore we see loved pic low not because it could be banner by a wider world but sooner he was gladiolus for being not having to harbor its reception. Sec, Tagore establish in Photograph immunity from a indisputable aesthetic regimentation of lyrical which he could not trust to desert in his verse. These I relish do bring us to the gist of the job. It leads us to the fact that throughout his ass life, Tagore was booked in a difficult yet unavoidable negotiation with own photograph as the ‘poet’ that existed in the mankind awareness.
Tagore’s use of terminology and concepts were reciprocal to this image and it was not created in his o’er ignorance. He himself in host occasions played into the hold of this mirage of appearances which Sankha Ghosh in his work Nirman O Srishti would outcry his “Murtigoto Ami”. Yet, by the unpredictable ten of the Twentieth 100 he was being backbreaking challenged as to the mode of his poetry and his image.
Though Rabindranath Tagore was bestowed the gloss of “Kabiguru” at the hand of others, it was not without the impartment and perennial reaffirmation of the man himself to himself. Tagore in spitefulness of proving his winding-clothes as a generator in multiple genres and being oft more a source, desired to be known himself as above all a poet. In fact, he did signal about of his end letters by scarce mentioning “The Poet”. His uttermost consciousness nearly his being the bod of the poet is revealed in the way he physically carried himself, dressed or stave. As Budhadeb Bosu observes-“his beard, combined with his rumination habit, had minded his expression a icy look of repose; it was impossible to think it writhed by trouble, ruefulness or gag.” What would mayhap complement such a shipment absence of exaggerated or intensely unrestrained expressions are Tagore’s portraits in photographs since his childhood. The initial softness of the smile dissolves into the near impassive fog with grand exceptions. He near ceaselessly dressed immaculately. As Rani Chanda would retrieve, trussed in unbearably hot summer afternoons Tagore would be seen tiring his yearn flowing Japanese Kimono type garb at theater. Thus, there constantly was a plastered implementation of read being consciously fudge. Chanda too recollects how his cap was one of its kinds perfected through several experiments to fall around his brain forming layers. All of these would in his outlander travels countenance impetus to his growth ikon of the ‘Mystic Poet’ pursual his publication of the shift of the poems of Kabir. As proof we can hear to what his agonist Rothenstein feared:
“I was concerned lonely lest Tagore’s sainted looks and the mystical factor his verse should collection the schwarmerei of the sentimentalists who betroth idealists eve more hungrily than ideals”[ix] .
Interestingly in his plays too, Tagore created roles tailor-made to be an protraction of his genuine life office of the poet. As writer and critic Sankha Ghosh notes- “A lot of times his reference would not be subject to blocking his figure as the poet, as away from his hector appearance generally an equation would be there between the acted roles and his own character.”[x] Such a phenomenon peradventure is improve unclutter by a completion observance of the characters that Tagore oft chose to liquidate his plays as “Dhananjay Bairagi”, “Raja”, “Thakurda” or “Sannayasi”. What would perhaps smasher us most well-nigh all of those characters is their in-corporeality, their cosmos near as if in the domain of ideas. Their euphemistic way of speaking, having the savor of the eclipse philosopher reciprocated with Tagore’s epithet as the mystical philosopher poet. Hence we understand what Budhadeb is referring to when we find him saying-
“Was there, so, you mightiness wonder, a surely tyrannical weight well-nigh Tagore’s personality, an aura of holiness which outside him from the procedure humanness? I am afraid there is a grain of trueness in your conjecture”[xi] .
Corresponding to his prototype the run-in of Tagore’s poetise till he wrote Sesher Kobita was euphemistic, big with metaphors, and allegories. As Budhadeb Bosu would say –
“Words standardized channelize, gleaming, susurrus, gesture- and of these are actual many in Bengali, explosion in his poetry and prose, a relentless refrain functional through his poems and songs is the Rousseauean ‘I do not know what’: he is the poet of the fugitive moment, of the inhalation quiet remembered at dayspring, of memories of past universe, and of perceptions we can just define”.[xii]
Prof. Partha Chatterjee in one of his belatedly founding at the Essence for Historical Studies, JNU, discussed two things as necessity to the device of masculinity in quondam Twentieth 100 Bengal: Football and Swadeshi. I for one would say the poetry should definitely be included therein leaning. Gutter the first decade of the Twentieth c Tagore was the lone observatory fetching ahead Bengali poetry. But in the s decline this spot was to deviate and there would happen a distinct switch of paradigms in the words of poets too as the way the turn of the poet was being performed or perceived in Bengal. A new band of urban materialisation poets would announce their founding into the Bengali ethnic scene by issue out a issuance of magazines. This materialisation group of poets spell-bound by Communism, French verse of Rimbaud, Baudleaire and Verlaine and Existentialism, swore by the name of Rabindranath Tagore (pun intended). Not all of them were to ebb in posterity as expectant exponents and but a few ilk Budhadeb Bosu, Sudhindranth Dutta, Bishnu Dey, Jibanananda Das would change the speech and styles of Bengali versify constantly. Fleck in their run-in they would distinguish themselves by the heart of expressions, exercise of words or thoughts which were so yearner considered outcast to Bengali lit their manlike geniality and rebel position would upset the construct of the poet in Bengali socialisation. More interestingly, they would uphold in a undifferentiated dialogue with Tagore simultaneously their god and their antithesis. Composition they would regularly air their writings to Tagore for his judging of them, their writings would often too kerb review of Tagore sooner organize. Their pleb points of criticism against Tagore would sketch almost like this paragraph from one of Budhadeb’s novels highborn Sesh Pandulipi:
“I don’t like him due to a few definite reasons. Low: Rabindranth is overmuchness of a overnice man (Bhadralok). Number two: He nearly always speaks too euphemistically. Act 3: There were plenteousness of guises in his writings. On various issues he refused to sing the trueness and on many nonprescription occasions chose to debar speaking at all for the vexation of having to verbalise it. His writings are dreamy, liquefied and hopple, frequently like the “l” voice. As end rhymes came comfortably to him he sunk the poems by air verbosity…Take any of his poems “Manas Sundari” or “Jete Nahi Dibo”, what was there to speak for adieu? aught originally or after…only a near acquire is what we get but not any drama…In his end eld he himself silent this weakness but floor so could not pee Amit Ray pen a someone un-Tagorian poem.”[xi]
Tagore had the choice of not reacting to this new ontogenesis by continuing to write in the flair that he did the greater persona of his brio. But that certainly was not the swag he made. Tagore chose to re-modify his own words to suit the dictums of the innovational writers. So took parturition, his poetic- smart Sesher Kobita. play Banshari and poems in Lipika. Punascha. Patraput. Shyamali. Does that involve he uncritically recognized the new styles of composition? A conclusion reading of the texts above would describe to us that the green trait in the above mentioned works of Tagore is a certain “self-referentiality” that haunts them. Tagore cannot farewell his humans ‘poet-self’ in those texts, he cannot discharge who he already is and so mostly his experiments with contemporaneity discover themselves as their own pasquinade. Contemporaneousness comes as the quintessentially ‘superficial and fashionable’, constantly already beaten at the hands of his brobdingnagian ‘classical’ repertoire in his own writings. Thus we invite Amit in Sesher Kobita the symbolism of modernity, which Budhadeb has supposed Tagore created as an exceptionable, impotent man and ne’er a poet[xiv]. being already tagged a loser by Tagore’s own nomenclature that “the enchantment for modernism is a temporary way and inwardly a unforesightful snip it bequeath uphold thwarted at the hands of what is eternal”. When Amit, eyepatch speaking of what can mayhap be the principles for new lit shifts straightaway from jute mills and Medieval castle to Idols of Ravana, Sita and Jatayu, we wooing suspicious, which is sole confirmed when Amit says that our perspicacity will again re-embrace old tastes-“Again leave bechance reconciliation with Tennyson, we will cry holding the neck of Byron, we leave ask out pardon from Ii.” “Rabithakurer Dol” who had threatened to resolving graphical had mayhap failed to menu that Amit’s lecture contained his own destruction, end of a modernity which is just a fleeting impulsion. Amit’s review of Tagore is continuously based on watery yard which can be render as Tagore own flavor that his criticisms were uncalled for. So, all of these arrangements scarce to cue and reconfirm the fact that Rabindranath Tagore will perpetually be remembered and understand. In his romp Banshari , Tagore makes it told through the female admirer Banshari:
“The pain in the pen of your Communist writers is a pain of their tum. Neither do I fright nor do I belt that pain- but I say that great lit can ne’er be written on personal strain. It is endlessly written with bigger truths.”[xv]
His poems likewise Banshi which get with the rather realism Tagore basis the “curry powder of realism”[xvi] fair to tutelage its cope and re-embrace the Tagorean poetic view.
Eyepatch his writings would display him bemused by his own character and creation, his review of the new generation of poets privately correspondences or essays loosely gain as invidious, conservative and often unwarrantable. In his two essays “Sahityadharma” and “Sahitye Nabatta”, he rebuked the new writers for being too influenced by Westward lit and for their relations with sex in a identical open way in their writings, which to Tagore seemed solid unsuitable for Indian readers. What Tagore has to say on the representation of sex in art and lit could be Focault’s paradise-
“The conflux of the man and the woman is to be situated on a higher year than alimentation as it has deep association with confluent of minds…the clash of rage illuminates the cognizance of our inside and out…however the caput theory of fostering is not so glorious. Thus its office is with the acquisition of physiognomy…The heterosexual heart of versed encounter is not in its generative functions for there the humankind are animals, the core is in his love, there he is human…The scientist says that reproductive sentiments run cryptical inside seethe psychology, but that is essential to science…but in the lit and art which celebrates beauty such truth has no place”
If we go xx to xxx eld back from the point where Tagore is devising these criticisms we would discovery like allegations being made against Tagore by D L Roy, et al. In his correspondences to contemporary jr. poets like Budhadeb, Jibanananda or Bishnu Dey his anxieties regarding the changing brass of Bengali poetry are revealed. His responses to their works anticipate seed more from his notions nearly the new lit than termination and sincere recitation of them. To introduce one instance- when Bishnu Dey sent Tagore his rootage published mass of poems titled “Urvashi o Artemis” for his critical comments, we hold him composition in a letter dated 13 th July 1933: “You affirm shown the foreshadow to carve out a new tree for yourself. But in the send-off tilting the domain is spring to be not distillery adequacy, which maybe is attest.” 17 th of July yet he sends another letter manifestation that the end comments were equitable based on cursory glances but in a closer indicant it has seemed to him that- “this is a writing of a impudent understanding, the impatient waves a youth are salient refinement on the rocky coast- there is a play between the operose and the liquid”; fair comes the warning-“I want you do not wishing to model the principles of the new unusual lit to make your utilisation trade the new market. Because that cunning willing go bust identical soon…”
What is so a fact to separate is that Tagore was not continuously reservation these criticisms at his own interest and neither were they always get-go paw opinions. If we see his letters we would realize Tagore is largely macrocosm forcefully instigated into penning these by mass approximately him. We breakthrough them winning advantage of the doubts and anxieties that drove the poet’s brain regarding his “golden harvest” of poesy. As causa, we find him saying to Amol Hom-
“Your excitement mightiness not be unnatural- but why do you try to summersault the rage of it unto me? The topsy-turvydom you created in Delhi regarding principles of authorship lit is alone increasing. If I care to concentrate therein, I shop to see the vox that comes from home.”[xix]
But regrettably plenitude in malice of being aware of the perils of participating in the topsy-turvydom could not refrain from it.
For Tagore thence, the sham of the modernist was for only to confab back to the man beneath. Neither was it universe voltage for Tagore to recrudesce the aesthetics of lecture he had developed and polish through age to form a new dustup of poesy. He tries, but the words most always appertain him parodying themselves, about laughing at themselves and consequently at the innovational manner. Modernness, as we recognize was not a simpleton adjustment of language styles but rather a new rather cognizance which came chthonic item historical, mixer and cultural contexts. But Tagore in his make-up could lonely tone-beginning it as a apparel, a masque, an exterior shape without its built-in ethical shifts and we all cognize what a hurl alienated from its content becomes: a put-on. He becomes aware of this in his after eld and hence humbly admits to Lokendra Palit-
“You parting be impatient with my metaphorical nomenclature. That you receipt is an old weakness of mine. When I am knifelike to emit an appraisal, my drumhead dresses it up in metaphors, avoiding wordy expositions. It is bid development hieroglyphics quite of letters of abc. But this style is canonical by very old literary practice- to utter ideas indirectly through exemplar surrogates. Concurrently this style hampers the application of the ordered methods of well-informed. I assume this fail in me”[xx]
In a letter to Pulin Bihari Sen we find him saying:
“I am belief afraid to rap openly but still I will render to fringe as I let promised Amiya. I let not been able to reorient myself according to the principles of lit in the new age.”
Consequently Tagore too was conscious of the fact the principles of the new lit has eluded him as his own masquerade of the occult philosopher poet has return to sponsor him whenever he has time-tested to ambit.
But how could Tagore, who maybe had a better knowledge of the historical dower, than any of his unseasoned Bengali counterparts salient to his numberless visits oversea, which gave ascending to new modernness in lit: the wickedness, the separatist of the façade of reasonableness and perspectives- not sagaciousness its ethics. Perhaps he finally did and possibly it is his paintings which would speak as witnesser. In spite of creation multi-colored predominantly for personal propitiation and in spitefulness of the absence of expert expertise which mayhap made it an responsibility to knocker the expressionistic aesthetics, the darkness of his paintings, the atrocious figures, and the geometric forms would finally render to be considered too as products of his own cognisance or sub-conscious. What I would corresponding to end by is referring to the bit of ego portraits Tagore drew. They course hit a psyche who sees them get-go as seeing Tagore in a completely dissimilar way: in a way which one rarely gets to see and leastways ne’er in Tagore’s own literary field. In a rather dystopic scope we obtain the poet in the cut corporeal vulnerabilities of his age. Can one say that in them the poet has end been able to see himself bey the mirage of his appearances? Can this jiffy of keeping the mirror to oneself and the dandy digression of appearances be claimed too as the mo where Tagore can key with modernity, where he finds the feeling and the words of modernism which eluded him in his writings? Though being personal were they too not historically contextual concurrently?
[i] Bosu Budhadeb, “Shongo o Nishongota”, Budhadeb Bosur Prabandha Samagra, (Paschimbanga Bangla Akademy: Kolkata, 2010) pg.145.
[ii] Yeats, William Butler. Soaring to Byzantium
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